Type- 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes develops because of lack of sensitivity of the receptors to insulin. Receptors are the transport system that enables insulin to enter the cells and metabolise the carbohydrates stored in the cells. Because of loss of sensitivity to insulin, although sufficient amount of insulin is available, the receptors fail to allow the insulin into the body cells, thereby inhibiting the breakdown of carbohydrates in the cells and thus causing hyperglycaemia.
Type 2 diabetes was more common in adults, however, in the current scenario the incidence of obesity is increasing in children aged 10 years and above, thereby increasing the incidence of Type-2 diabetes. The symptoms of type-2 diabetes are the same as that of type-1 diabetes and in certain cases the child may not show any symptoms at all. An important aspect of diabetes management is lifestyle changes that include diet modification, increased/moderate physical activity and medical treatment. Medical treatment includes medications to lower the glucose level, known as oral hypoglycaemic agents and/or insulin therapy. Regular monitoring of blood glucose level is necessary to prevent long term complications of the disease.